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美国外语政策的发展与启示
鲁子问
China (Mainland)
华中师范大学北京研究院
100080
Yuming Li, Mingling Li, Binhua Wang, Kwesting Lu, Duqin Wang, Qinglan Yu, Yunping Lei
foreign language policy, social development, national security
 

提要1 Abstract1

Foreign language policy of USA has long been featuring its international needs. It was not until 1945 that USA began its recognition of foreign language education necessity, concerning the requirements from the Second World War. The year 1957 witnessed a turning point in USA foreign language policy. Since then, United States experienced continuous reforms in its foreign language policies, but they share a common core: policies complying with social development and the national security. A variety of implications could be explicated from the fundamental principles of USA foreign language policy making.

提要2 Abstract2

Language Policy Symposium on CELEA 5th Conference Over 10 scholars from Australia and China will give presentations on various fields of language policy. Yuming Li from MOE of China, Binhua Wang from East China Normal University, Kwesting Lu from Central China Normal University, Duqin Wang from Beijing Normal University and Mingling Li from Sydney University will present their recent research. This will be an interactive Symposium with the presenters interacting with each other and with the audience both during the presentations and in allocated discussion times. With this interactivity in mind audience are invited to bring along and share their views, experience and implications from various points of view on language policy, particularly, foreign language policy. Yuming Li (Ministry Of Education of China) Recent Research Presentation Mingling Li (Sydney University) On China’s English Educational Policy Planning Binhua Wang (East China Normal University) A survey on China’s Policy of English Education in Primary Schools China launched its English curriculum in primary schools in 2001. Since then, more than half of the primary schools in China started its English education. A nation-wide survey was made in 2006 to find the exact data of the implementation of the curriculum. This report will give an overall introduction of the survey. Kwesting Lu (Beijing Institute, Central China Normal University) Changes and Implications of Foreign Language Policy of USA Foreign language policy of USA has long been featuring its international needs. Before the year 1945, for the not much social and international requirement, USA’s foreign language policy just made its way into local education system, with little or even no access to public education policy framework. It was not until 1945 that USA began its recognition of foreign language education necessity, concerning the requirements from the Second World War. The year 1957 witnessed a turning point in USA foreign language policy: at that time, the launching of Soviet Union’s first satellite Sputnik indirectly inspired a thorough promotion of foreign language education within the whole USA; meanwhile, the federal government issued “National Defense Education Act”, with the establishment of specific provisions on foreign language policy, later on, namely “Title VI”. Nevertheless, in 1970s and 1980s, American foreign language policy came back into the domain of local policy. Concerning the needs of social development and the gaining of European language policy, specialists as Richard Lambert, Emeritus Director of National Foreign Language Center, proposed to construct those federal foreign language policy framework that agree with the temporal social and economical demands. From 1990s, terrorism has gradually been threatening the national security of USA, and finally the inevitable 9.11 Event happened. Thus, the construction of USA foreign language policy proceeded with a new kernel--- national security, and an increasing number of relative policies were released. In 2006, to guarantee the national security, President George W. Bush authorized a federal foreign language policy---National Security Language Initiative, calling for more foreign language education in USA. United States experienced continuous reforms in its foreign language policies, but they share a common core: policies complying with social development and the national security. A variety of implications could be explicated from the fundamental principles of USA foreign language policy making. The current foreign language policy in China mainly focuses on the demands of social development, whereas advanced exploration of this field are far from being enough, for example, studies on the choice of foreign language varieties are still inadequate. On the other hand, the present foreign language policy in China suffers from a severe unconsciousness of national security, which is, according to the present writer, the key of our future efforts. Kwesting Lu (Beijing Institute, Central China Normal University) Foreign Language Policy and Social Development: Experience and Implications from Europe Foreign language policy is highly connected with social development. Foreign language policy of Europe as a whole has specific social development goals from a long time, in which there includes the realistic needs of European’s foreign language abilities based on the social development, meet the challenge in international political, economic, and cultural sectors, and cultivate the intercultural understanding in intercultural interaction all by the way of foreign language policy. The social development goals of foreign language goals of Europe give much more implications to China’s ongoing formulating of foreign language policy. Duqin Wang (Foreign Language School, Beijing Normal University, PhD candidate) Foreign Language Test Policy and Social Development Needs: CET-4/6 as examples CET4/6, as a national examination to evaluate the attainment of the goals prescribed by College English Curriculum Requirements, belongs to the domain of public policy, and thus, like other public policies, has the functions of orientation, adjustment, value distribution, evaluation and social-related functions. However, the nature of CET4/6 does not accord with its regulations. The construction of the test is irrelevant to college English course requirement and instruction. The adoption of normal distribution violates the principle of effective teaching. The test is unable to test the comprehensive ability that society demands. What’s more, it misleads course arrangement, instruction design and course evaluation. That is to say, CET4/6 is unable to perform and in reality has not performed its policy functions. It has both low policy design validity and policy practice validity. To ensure the policy validity of CET 4/6, it is necessary to improve the organization system of the test, adopt criterion-orientation, increase the weighting of formative assessment, and focus on the evaluation of comprehensive application ability of learners. It is also necessary to establish society-adaptive curriculum standards and evaluation standards. Qinglan Yu (Foreign Language Department, Northern China Water Power University) Social Education Policy and Social Development Needs: Experience and Implications from the Netherlands Based on a consideration of the geographical, political, economical conditions, this paper firstly provides a detailed description of the gradual construction of Netherlands foreign language policy in 19th and 20th century: from alienation to legislation, then it is followed with an thorough analysis of a successful case in its foreign language construction process: the Netherlands National Action Programme. Finally, the main features of Netherlands foreign language policy building are presented. Yunping Lei (ELT Supervisor, Yibin, Sichuan, China) English Curriculum Policy: A local Perspective In the trends of English Curriculum Reconstruction process, China launched its National Curriculum Standards for English in Primary and Middle Schools. This national policy requires local education authorities to implement the standards based on the local English education conditions. Yibin, a rural county in southwestern China’s Sichuan Province, made its great efforts to implement the national English curriculum policy in order to speed up its social and economic development. This paper gives some details about the local implementation of the national policy.
 
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